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Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “God does not care about our mathematical difficulties. He integrates empirically.”
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MARCH 1 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on March 1st
  Seymour Papert
 Born 1 Mar 1928; died 31 Jul 2016 at age 88.   quotes
American computer scientist who invented the Logo computer programming language, an educational computer programming language for children. He studied under Piaget, absorbing his educational theories. He has studied ways to use mathematics to understand better how children learn and think, and about the ways in which computers can aid in a child's learning. With Marvin Minsky, he co-founded the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT. In the mid-80s he worked in Costa Rica to develop a nationwide program of intensive computer use throughout the public education system. Costa Rica, which now has the highest literacy rate in the Americas, continues to serve as a model for large-scale deployment of computer technology in education.
Mindstorms: Children, Computers, And Powerful Ideas, by Seymour A. Papert. - book suggestion.
  Fred F. Scherer
 Born 1 Mar 1915; died 25 Nov 2013 at age 98.
American artist, illustrator and naturalist who joined the American Natural History Museum at age 19, as an apprentice to assist in making dioramas, the backgrounds and senery to displays of stuffed animals. He learned his skills on the job. His art was to give depth, where there was none, and reality to re-creations of natural habitat that melded seamlessly into the physical display of taxidermy. The heydey, when most of his work was done, was in the period of the 1940s to 1960s. He would take field trips to view what he was to paint, to best get the first-hand feel of the interplay of light and colours of the landscape and fauna. In his New York Times obituary, he was credited with an uncanny ability to summon the illusion of air currents, odours and bugs to fill the space between in the several feet between the back of the case and the observer's glass.«
Windows on Nature: The Great Habitat Dioramas of the American Museum of Natural History, by Stephen Christopher Quinn. - book suggestion.
  I. Bernard Cohen
 Born 1 Mar 1914; died 20 Jun 2003 at age 89.   quotes
American science historian who was the first American to receive a Ph.D. in history of science. He published many books on the history of science. His notable Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1999), the first English translation of Isaac Newton's Principia since 1729, took 15 years to complete, and comprised 974 pages. He also wrote about Benjamin Franklin and the computer pioneer, Howard Aiken.«
The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life, by Bernard Cohen. - book suggestion.
  Archer Martin
 Born 1 Mar 1910; died 28 Jul 2002 at age 92.   quotes
Archer John Porter Martin was an English biochemist who shared (with R.L.M. Synge) the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1952 for development of paper partition chromatography using two different liquids moving at right angles. This quick and economical analytical technique separates the different components of a mixture, permitting their identification and analysis. As a new tool, it provided extensive advances in chemical, medical, and biological research. In 1941 Martin and Synge had realized that the partition of a solute between a gas and a liquid was possible, but it was in the early 1950s that Martin developed the technique of gas-liquid chromatography with A. T. James.
  Sir Isaac Shoenberg
 Born 1 Mar 1880; died 25 Jan 1963 at age 82.
Russian-Born British electrical engineer and principal inventor of the first high-definition television system, as used by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for the world's first public high-definition telecast (from London, 1936). He had installed the first radio stations in Russia before moving to England in 1914. He was head of a research group for Electrical and Musical Industries (EMI) that developed (1931-35) an advanced kind of camera tube (the Emitron) and a relatively efficient hard-vacuum cathode-ray tube for the television receiver. Until 1964 the BBC used his technical standard proposal - 405 scanning lines and 25 pictures a second. He was director of EMI from 1955. His youngest son, David Shoenberg, became a noted physicist.
  Albert S. Bickmore
 Born 1 Mar 1839; died 12 Aug 1914 at age 75.
Albert Smith Bickmore was an American naturalist, traveller and museum curator who acquired his love of natural history as a result of growing up in a coastal town. He studied natural history under Professor Agassiz, and shortly also began to care for the department of Mullusca at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. There he conceived the idea of the American Museum of Natural History. By 1865, he set off on a three-year expedition to the East Indies, China, Japan, Russia and Europe gathering specimens to form the basis of the future museum's collection. Upon his return, he devoted himself to indeed establishing the institution, and was able to arrange for its funding. He wrote of his travels in Travels in the East Indian Archipelago (1869). In 1870, he was appointed Professor Natural History at Madison University, Hamilton, New York. The cornerstone of the new building was laid on 2 Jun 1874, by President Grant.«
  Robert Cornelius
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lard lamp
 Born 1 Mar 1809; died 10 Aug 1893 at age 84.
American photographer and manufacturer who made the first U.S. self-portrait photograph (a daguerrotype, Nov 1839), opened the first U.S. portrait photography studio (Feb 1840), and published the first photographic advertisement. He was helped by his prior study of chemistry. That enterprise he operated only as a side-interest until 1843, for his life's career was with the business started by his father, the leading maufacturer of oil lamps and gas fixtures. After 1831, when he became a partner, the business was known as Cornelius and Son. He is creditted with designing mechanical devices to facilitate the various factory processes in working metal. Before the availability of gas, the “solar lamp” he invented and patented (U.S. No. 3030, 1843) enabled burning simple lard (from fatted pigs: “prairie whales”) instead of more expensive whale oil.«[Image: detail from Cornelius self-portrait daguerrotype, believed to be the earliest extant American portrait photo, and is now in the Library of Congress.]
  John Pell
 Born 1 Mar 1611; died 12 Dec 1685 at age 74.
English mathematician who introduced the division sign (obelus,÷) into England. The obelus was first used by Johann Rahn (1622-1676) in 1659 in Teutsche Algebra. Rahn's book was interpreted into English and published, with additions made by John Pell. According to some sources, John Pell was a key influence on Rahn and he may be responsible for the development of the symbol. The word obelus comes from a Greek word meaning a "roasting spit." The symbol wasn't new. It had been used to mark passages in writings that were considered dubious, corrupt or spurious.Image: the division symbol as first used by Rahn in Teutsche Algebraas reproduced by Florian Cajori in A History of Mathematical Notations, (1928-29) vol. 2, page 211.

Nature bears long with those who wrong her. She is patient under abuse. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath. (1882) -- Nathaniel Egleston, who was writing then about deforestation, but speaks equally well about the danger of climate change today.
Carl Sagan Thumbnail Carl Sagan: In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) ...(more by Sagan)

Albert Einstein: I used to wonder how it comes about that the electron is negative. Negative-positive—these are perfectly symmetric in physics. There is no reason whatever to prefer one to the other. Then why is the electron negative? I thought about this for a long time and at last all I could think was “It won the fight!” ...(more by Einstein)

Richard Feynman: It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ...(more by Feynman)
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
MARCH 1 – DEATHS – Scientists died on March 1st
  Joseph Cyril Bamford
 Died 1 Mar 2001 at age 84 (born 21 Jun 1916).
English inventor and industrialist who invented and manufactured the JCB construction machine with a hydraulically operated shovel on the front and an excavator arm on the back. From the business which bore his initials that he started in a garage in 1945, he became one of Britain's most successful industrialists. He pioneered the backhoe loader concept in Europe, which he first introduced in 1954. He is also credited with the widespread application of hydraulic technology in construction and agricultural equipment. The company he founded now has a global market in heavy plant and agricultural machinery. In 1968, he created a nature reserve in the grounds of the factory which now successfully hosts much wildlife.«
  Cláudio Villas-Boas
 Died 1 Mar 1998 at age 81 (born 8 Dec 1916).
Brazilian anthropologist and activist whose life was dedicated to the search for and protection of the country's indigenous people as their lands were taken over and developed; he and his brother Orlando aided in the creation of the Xingu National Park reservation in 1961 and the National Indian Foundation six years later. He helped to build more than 30 airfields in the middle of the jungle and opened more than 1,000 miles of trails under the Amazon canopy. Together with his brothers, Cláudio contacted some of the most feared tribes like the Kalapalos, Kayabi, Kamaiurás, Meinacos, and Txucarramães. In 1973 they made contact for the first time with the Kreen-Akarore Indians (or Panarás, the giant Indians) in the north of the state of Mato Grosso.
  Georges J.F. Köhler
 Died 1 Mar 1995 at age 48 (born 17 Apr 1946).
Georges Jean Franz Köhler was a German immunologist who shared (with César Milstein and Niels K. Jerne) the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work in developing the technique for producing monoclonal antibodies - pure, uniform, and highly sensitive protein molecules used in diagnosing and combating a number of diseases. These antibodies, and the subsequent developments based their work, revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of many immunologic diseases, including some forms of cancer and AIDS. In 1975, he and Milstein published in Nature the results of their work leading to the production of monoclonal antibodies “Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.” Milstein's and Köhler's method of producing monoclonal antibodies involves fusing an antibody-producing cell - which can recognize an invading organism - with a tumor cell, which lives and reproduces indefinitely. Their discoveries are being used in research on mild illnesses and diseases such as cancer and AIDS.
  Edwin Herbert Land
 Died 1 Mar 1991 at age 81 (born 7 May 1909).   quotes
American inventor and physicist who founded the Polaroid Company. His one-step process for developing and printing photographs was the greatest innovation in photography since the introduction of roll film. He first demonstrated the Polaroid Land Camera in 1947, which gave fully developed prints in 60 seconds. Land also applied the name Polaroid to the light-polarizing filter he had previously invented by embedding suitable crystals in a plastic sheet, which was widely known for its use in the lenses of sunglasses. His other projects included instant X-rays, 3D movie projector among the over 500 patents he held.
Insisting On The Impossible: The Life Of Edwin Land‎, by Victor K. McElheny. - book suggestion.
  Lev Artsimovich
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Tokamak T-3
 Died 1 Mar 1973 at age 64 (born 25 Feb 1909).
Lev Andreevich Artsimovich was a Soviet physicist who provided the basis of the Tokamak, a device capable of confining ultra-high temperature plasma suitable for research into controlled nuclear fusion. After WW II, he began with the task of isotope separation for nuclear bomb fuel, and from there turned to work on a goal of controlled nuclear fusion.
  Harry E. Soref
 Died 1 Mar 1957 at age 69 (born 2 Mar 1887).
American locksmith and inventor who patented the laminated steel padlock, and founder of Master Lock Company (1921). As a locksmith, Soref had realized that the cheaper padlocks, made with stamped metal sheels, were poor security because they were easily damaged. He patented (1924) his invention of a laminated padlock which, like bank vault doors and battleships, was built in laminations of layer on layer of steel for greater strength. Unable to sell his invention to a padlock manufacturer, he began making them himself. Master Lock opened its first tiny factory in Milwaukee, Wisc. In 1928 Master Lock gained national recognition for shipping 147,600 padlocks to federal prohibition agents in New York for locking up the speakeasies they raided.«   more
  Alfred Korzybski
 Died 1 Mar 1950 at age 70 (born 3 Jul 1879).   quotes
Polish-born American scientist and philosopher. Korzybski was the originator of general semantics, a system of linguistic philosophy that attempts to increase humanity's capacity to transmit ideas from generation to generation (what Korzybski called man's "time-binding capacity") through the study and refinement of ways of using and reacting to language.
  Griffith Brewer
 Died 1 Mar 1948 at age 80 (born 23 Jul 1867).
Edward Griffith Brewer was an English lawyer, balloonist and aviator who was the first Englishman to fly in an airplane (though as a passenger). Brewer was a patent attorney, who had been making aerial ascents since 1891 as a ballonist. In 1908, he met  Wilbur Wright who was giving flying exhibitions in France. Wilbur took Brewer on a short airplane ride, which prompted Brewer to ask about taking flying instruction some time later. They established a lifetime friendship, and Brewer made many visits to Wright's home in Dayton. Meanwhile, Langley—the director of the Smithsonian Institution—was claiming to have had his own Great Aerodrome capable of flight before the Wrights. Brewer staunchly supported the Wrights by writing to the New York Times, and lecturing to the Royal Society in England. He suggested the 1903 Wright Flyer be exhibited at the Science Museum. in London.«   more
  Alexandre Yersin
 Died 1 Mar 1943 at age 79 (born 23 Sep 1863).
Swiss-French bacteriologist who co-discovered the plague bacillus, Pasteurella pestis (also called Yersinia pestis and Bacillus pestis). With Pierre Roux he discovered the diphtheria toxin (1889). Yersin discovered the plague bacillus simultaneously with Shibasaburo Kitasato (1894) in Hong Kong, where he had been sent by the French government. The Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato had arrived days earlier and had secured priority to the limited facilities. Nevertheless, Yersin gained a sample of pus excised from a plague victim, and was able almost immediately isolate the plague bacillus. Yersin then set out to attenuate the bacillus and develop an anti-plague serum. He successfully treated his first plague patient, a Chinese student, in 1896.
Plague: A Story of Rivalry, Science, and the Scourge That Won't Go Away, by Edward Marriott. - book suggestion.
  Edwin J. Houston
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 Died 1 Mar 1914 at age 66 (born 9 Jul 1847).
Edwin James Houston was an American electrical engineer who, together with Elihu Thomson (another Philadelphia high school teacher) experimented with electricity. Houston invented, patented in 1881 and manufactured arc street-lighting. He presented the first paper, Notes on Phenomena in Incandescent Lamps, to The American Institute of Electrical Engineers when it began in 1884 (AIEE - the predecessor society of the present IEEE, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The merger of Thomson-Houston and Edison General Electric companies (1892) formed General Electric. In 1894 he joined with Arthur Kennelly (who resigned from Edison's laboratory) to form a consulting company.
  Jacobus Henricus Van't Hoff
 Died 1 Mar 1911 at age 58 (born 30 Aug 1852).   quotes
Dutch physical chemist who was the first winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1901) “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.” In stereochemistry, in 1874, he identified the four chemical bonds of carbon as having a tetrahedral arrangement, which explained how certain moleculars can be arranged differently with the same atoms to give left- and right-handed isomers. (Achille Le Bel arrived independently at the same conclusion at about the same time.) With regard to the osmotic pressure of liquids, he derived laws (1886) for dilute solutions similar to the gas laws for gases by Robert Boyle and Joseph Gay-Lussac. These relationships enabled the experimental determination of the molecular weight of a substance in solution.«
Imagination in Science, by J. H. van't Hoff. - book suggestion.
  Peter Barlow
 Died 1 Mar 1862 at age 85 (born 13 Oct 1776).   quotes
English mathematician and engineer who invented two varieties of achromatic (non-colour-distorting) telescope lenses. In 1819, Barlow began work on the problem of deviation in ship compasses caused by the presence of iron in the hull. For his method of correcting the deviation by juxtaposing the compass with a suitably shaped piece of iron, he was awarded the Copley Medal. In 1822, he built a device which is to be considered one of the first models of an electric motor supplied by continuous current. He also worked on the design of bridges, in particular working (1819-26) with Thomas Telford on the design of the bridge over the Menai Strait, the first major modern suspension bridge. Barlow was active during the period of railway building in Britain.
  Friedrich Eduard Beneke
 Died 1 Mar 1854 at age 56 (born 17 Feb 1798).
German philosopher and psychologist who argued that inductive psychology was the foundation for the study of all philosophical disciplines. He rejected the existing idealism for a form of associationism influenced by both Immanuel Kant and Locke. Beneke agreed with Herbart's general idea that mathematics should be introduced into psychology, but he felt that Herbart's attempt to quantify psychological phenomena was insufficiently empirical. Beneke suggested that more precise observations were needed, through psychological experiments. Although he never carried out such experiments himself, Beneke demanded that psychologists should develop their theories, and test them, under controlled conditions and with the systematic variation of variables.
  Thomas Earnshaw
 Died 1 Mar 1829 at age 80 (born 4 Feb 1749).
English watchmaker, the first to simplify and economize in producing chronometers so as to make them available to the general public. In 1782, he devised the spring detent chronometer escapement. He did much to develop the chronometer, and was awarded £3,000 by Board of Longitude. His chronometers were described in a publication by the Commissioners of Longitude in 1806. Forty years after his death, the novelist Jules Verne described Phileas Fogg as, "He gave the idea of being perfectly well-balanced, as exactly regulated as a Leroy or Earnshaw chronometer."
  Zabdiel Boylston
 Died 1 Mar 1766 at age 89 (born 9 Mar 1676).   quotes
American physician who introduced smallpox inoculation into the American colonies. Small-pox had broken out again in Boston in 1721. Rev. Cotton Mather had learned of a technique being practiced abroad that was reported to give protection. When a small wound was infected with pus taken from a smallpox sore, a person would thereupon develop a trivial case of the disease, but would likely suffer no further more serious infection later. After Mather was rebuffed by other medical practitioners in Boston, he approached Boylston with the idea to experiment with the technique. Boyston thought a trial to be so worthwhile that he inoculated his own son and two others on 26 Jun 1721. Their resulting illness was mild; they recovered by 4 Jul 1721.   more
The Speckled Monster: A Historical Tale of Battling the Smallpox Epidemic, by Jennifer Lee Carrell. - book suggestion.
  Francesco Redi
 Died 1 Mar 1697 at age 71 (born 18 Feb 1626).
Italian physician and poet who demonstrated that the presence of maggots in putrefying meat does not result from spontaneous generation but from eggs laid on the meat by flies. Redi's interest was aroused by a book by William Harvey who proposed that insects, worms and frogs came from seeds or eggs too small to be seen. In 1668, Redi's classic experimental method was one of the first examples of a biological experiment with proper controls. He repeated the same experiments in different ways, modifying only one parameter at a time, and carrying out suitable tests. Redi prepared eight flasks with different kinds of meat; four were left open and four sealed. The meat rotted in all the flasks, but maggots appeared only in the open flasks which flies could freely enter. (To exclude the possibility that maggot's life cycle was affected in sealed jars, he tested further with two other series of jars, allowing air, but no flies, to enter test jars covered with a fine filter.)
Sparks of Life: Darwinism and the Victorian Debates Over Spontaneous Generation, by James E. Strick. - book suggestion.

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MARCH 1 – EVENTS – Science events on March 1st
  Direct-dial transatlantic phone calls
  In 1970, direct-dial transatlantic telephone service was opened to the public for calls between the US and Britain by the collaboration of AT&T and the British Post Office (which operated the U.K. telephone system.) The former rate was reduced by one-third. The new service was the first major intercontinental dialing system. Intelsat III satellites handled 1,200 telephone circuits per satellite. Five of these 322-lb satellites had been put in service in synchronous orbits over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans in 1968-70, a major expansion from the older 85-pound Early Bird satellite capacity of 240 circuits. Satellites links use microwave beams. Signals received from one ground station, are amplified by the solar-cell powered satellite and are able to be transmitted to a ground station on another continent.«
  Soviet spacecraft reaches Venus surface
  In 1966, the mission of the Soviet Union’s unmanned spacecraft Venera 3 (Venus 3) was a partial success when it reached Venus and automatically released a small landing capsule intended to explore the planet's atmosphere during a parachute descent. However, contact had been lost since 16 Feb 1966. Although no data was returned before the capsule impacted, it became the first man-made object to touch the surface of another planet. The Soviet Union issued a commemorative stamp to mark the achievement. Venera 3 was launched on 16 Nov 1965. The landing capsule (0.9-m diam., about 300-kg) had been designed to collect data on pressure, temperature, and composition of the Venusian atmosphere. Failure is believed due to overheating of internal components and the solar panels.«
  Bikini H-bomb test
  In 1954, at Bikini, in the Pacific Ocean, the blast of the U.S. hydrogen bomb code-named Bravo was the most powerful of all U.S. thermonuclear bomb tests in the area. Equivalent to at least 15 megatons of TNT, it was similar to 1,000 atomic bombs of the kind dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, during WW II.. Bikini is a Pacific archipelago that is part of the Marshall Islands. In this test, one of the atolls was totally vaporized and disappeared in the over 100-mile wide mushroom cloud. Fallout exceeded predictions. Earlier tests began in 1946 after the indiginous people were evacuated to an island believed to be a safe distance away. (They were moved again in 1949.) Radioactivity made the bomb site islands an unsafe wasteland for many decades to follow.«
Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb, by Richard Rhodes. - book suggestion.
  Houdini patent
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Waist connection and lock
  In 1921, a Diver's Suit invention was patented by Harry Houdini (U.S. No.1,370,316) for which he had applied on 30 Jun 1917. The famous magician's innovation was to provide a means whereby, without requiring assistance, the diver could quickly remove the suit while submerged, in case of danger or any other reason.. A diver could put on or take off the diving suit on the surface without assistance. This was accomplished by forming the suit in two sections of impervious pliable material that meet and lock together with rigid bands at the waist. The helmet and boots remained attached to the top and bottom parts of the suit. The interlocking connection clamped at the waist with a quick-release handle which the diver could operate underwater, and, “aided by the inrush of water,” escape from the suit and swim to the surface.«
  First parachute jump from an airplane
  In 1912, Captain Albert Berry performed the first parachute jump from an airplane over Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. Previously, Berry had many times parachuted from a balloon. This time, he left his seat in the two-passenger Benoist pusher bi-plane while it was flying at a speed of about 50 m.p.h., at an altitude of about 1500-ft. The parachute was stowed underneath the aircraft in a specially constructed case. He cut it loose, and descended on a trapeze bar attached below it. Leonardo da Vinci drew a parachute in 1485. With two very large umbrellas, Frenchman Louis-Sébastien Lenormand tested the concept by jumping from a tree in 1783. The first parachute jump from a hydrogen ballon was made by Frenchman André-Jacques Garnerin on 22 Oct 1797.«
  Radioactivity discovered
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Fogged image
  In 1896, Henri Becquerel accidentally discovered radioactivity when he developed a photographic plate he left in a desk drawer with crystals of a uranium compound upon it. He found a fogged image of the uranium crystals resting on it, although the plate was wrapped in heavy black paper. He had left the objects together on 26 Feb, after postponing his intended experiment on phosphorescent emissions stimulated by the sun. Having being left in darkness, eventually he realized the crystals where not phosphorescing from sunlight. Instead he had found spontaneous and penetrating rays, independent of any input of energy. A glimpse of a new mystery of the atom had been revealed, investigated for years after by other scientists. He shared the 1903 Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie for their work on radioactivity.«   more
Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science, by Marjorie C. Malley. - book suggestion.
  Bone Wars skirmish
  In 1872, paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope described two new dinosaur era fossils from Kansas of two large winged reptiles, of the family of Ornithosaurians (from Greek words bird, lizard). In the paper he read to the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, he assigned them to genus Ornithochirus (misspelling of Ornithocheirus, from Greek words for bird, hand). However the American Journal of Science recorded priority in naming rights to his bitter rival Othniel C. Marsh in their “Bone Wars.” Papers from both on the same subject material were printed shortly after the lecture, but the paper from Cope appeared in print (12 Mar) later than Marsh (7 Mar), who thus established them under the genus Pterodactylus he had previously named for other species he found in 1870. Cope conceded in 1875.«[Image right: Ornithochirus umbrosus (Cope 1872). Adapted and reoriented from plate opp. p.356 in Webb, Buffalo Land (1872), likely drawn from Cope's instructions.
The Gilded Dinosaur: The Fossil War Between E.D. Cope and O.C. Marsh, by Mark Jaffe. - book suggestion.
  John Muir
Thumbnail - John Muir
  In 1866, John Muir's workplace was destroyed by fire. The factory, near Meaford, Canada, was not only where he worked as a woodworker and inventor of tools, but also where he stored his inventions, and a stock of wood he part-owned, all of which were lost in the fire. At the age of 27, he shortly changed his lifestyle to that of a naturalist and author.
  First female black American medical degree
  In 1864, Rebecca Lee Crumpler became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston. She began in 1852-1860 as a nurse in Massachusetts. As a medical pioneer who prevailed over the severest of societal restrictions, she spent her lifetime working to improve the health of the black community. In 1883, her desire to educate others in general medical principles resulted in the publication of her A Book of Medicinal Discourses in Two Parts. In the book, based on her personal journals, she focused on instructions for women on how to provide medical care for themselves and their children.
African American Healers, by Clinton Cox. - book suggestion.
  Faraday joins Davy
  In 1813, Michael Faraday was appointed at the Royal Institution as Chemical Assistant to Humphry Davy, whom he succeeded as Professor of Chemistry in 1820. Since age 14, in 1805, while an apprentice bookbinder, Faraday had educated himself about science. In 1810, he joined the City Philosophical Society to attend lectures and discuss scientific matters. A turning point in his life happened in 1812. A client of the bookbindery gave him four tickets to hear Humphry Davy lecturing at the Royal Institution. Fascinated by the scientific topics, He took notes, which he took with him later to show Davy when he later asked for a position. Davy interviewed him, but there was no opening at the time. When a vacancy ocurred in 1813, Davy recalled him and Faraday was hired.«
The Electric Life Of Michael Faraday, by Alan W. Hirshfeld. - book suggestion.

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- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
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Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton

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