American Anniversaries: Every Day in the Year,
by Philip Robert Dillon, Philip Robert Dillon Publ. Co. (1918). (source)
American National Biography, by American Council
of Learned Societies, Oxford University Press.
Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, by Isaac Asimov,
2nd rev ed., Doubleday & Co., (1982)
Dictionary of the History of Technology,
by Day and McNeil. Routledge
Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists, by David, Ian, John and Margaret
Miller, Cambridge University Press (1996.)
Dictionary of Scientists, by A. V. Howard, E.P. Dutton & Co.
Dictionary of Scientific Biography, American
Council of Learned Societies (1981)
Dorling Kindersley website
Dictionary of American Biography, American
Council of Learned Societies (1977)
Dictionary of Scientific Biography, American
Council of Learned Societies (1981)
of World Biography, Gale Research.
First Facts, by Joseph Nathan Kane, H.W. Wilson, 3rd ed. (1981)
First Facts, by Joseph Nathan Kane et. al., H.W. Wilson, 6th edition
Biography Resource Center, Thomson Gale.
Dictionary of Dates, by Benjamin Vincent, 23rd ed. (1904)
Asimov's Book of Science and Nature Quotations, edited by Isaac
Asimov and Jason Shulman, publ. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1988).
Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia:
A New Edition, by D. Appleton and A. J. Johnson (1893).
Modern Men of Science,
in 2 volumes (1966-8)
New York Times archive.
Twentieth-Century Scientists, Gale Research (1995)
Women Scientists, by Pamela Proffitt, Gale Group (2000)
Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things, by Charles Panati, Harper
& Row, 1989.
of Men of Eminence, by Lovell Reeve (1864).
Speaking: A Book of Quotations, by Kevin Connolly, Blackwell Publishing
and Technology Firsts, by Leonard C. Bruno, publ. Gale (1997)
Scribner Encyclopedia of American
Lives, Charles Scribner's Sons (1998)
Speaking, A Dictionary of Quotations by Carl C. Gaither and Alma
E Cavazos-Gaither, publ. Institute of Physics Publishing (2000).
Harvest of a Quiet Eye: A Selection of Scientific Quotations, selected
by Alan L Mackay, Crane, Russak & Co. Inc., NY (1977)
Shell Book of Firsts, by Parick Robertson, Ebury Press (1974)
Prize - the Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power, by Daniel Yergin,
Simon & Schuster (1991)
The Times newspaper
Timetables of Science: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events
in the History of Science by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch,
Simon & Schuster (1991)
World Almanac Book of Inventions by Valérie-Anne Giscard
d'Estaing, Ballantine Books (1985)
Records in Chemistry by Hans-Jürgen Quadbeck-Seeger, Wiley-VCH
B., picture from obituary, New York
Times (31 Mar 1971), 49.
Allison, Fred: ref. for discreditting of
magneto-optic effect, A
Memoir on the Physical Review: A History of the First Hundred Years,
by Paul Hartman, publ. Springer (1994), page 161.
Anguino, Eddie: 21st birthday confirmed
by email from Loma Linda Medical Center (20 Nov 2006).
Barcode: ref. for date given in Century Makers,
David Hillman and David Gibbs, p.178, (Welcome Rain, 1999).
Barach, Alvan: picture in New York Times (13 Dec 1977), 51.
Beckett, Allan: picture contributed by family
Bell Photophone: picture (1891) from
Science and Invention, Mitchell Wilson, p. 285
Bertrand, Marcel: picture from Marcel
Bertrand (1847-1907), Pierre Termier, Extrait des Annales des mines,
4e livraison de 1908, frontispiece.
Bethe, Hans: picture from Discover,
Vol. 20 No. 12 (Dec 1999)
Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile: picture
from The Discovery of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed,
Blanchard, Thomas: picture from Leading
American Inventors, by G. Iles, publ. McClelland and Goodchild, Toronto,
1912, p. 104-118. found at Engines
of Our Ingenuity, No. 2045.
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich: Skull
collection picture from The Ascent of Man, J. Bronowski, p.
Boston Philosophical Society: ref for date
of meeting in The Last American Puritan: The Life of Increase Mather, 1639-1723,
by Michael Garibaldi Hall, pub Wesleyan University Press (1988), page 166.
Bridge, Tay Railway: image from cover
Bouch: The Builder of the Tay Bridge, by John Rapley.
Bramah, Joseph: picture of his 1778 design
of a valve closet which stayed in use into the late 19th century from Encyclopedia
of Inventions, Chartwell Books (1976), p.82.
Bramah, Joseph date of hydraulic press patent
from Tubular and Other Iron Girder Bridges, Particularly Describing
the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges, George Drysdale Dempsey,
publ. John Weale (1850).
Brown, Barnum: Birthdate from http://www.nhm.ku.edu/paleontology/bbrown.htm
Bussy, Antoine A.B.: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 133.
Reference for his paper "Mémoire sur le Radical
métallique de la Magnésie": Ann. chim. phys. (2) 46,
Butterick, Ebenezer: picture
from Historic Homes and Institutions and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs
of Worcester County by Ellery Bicknell Crane, The Lewis Publishing
Canada's Greatest Invention, Canadian
Broadcasting Company programme broadcast 3 Jan 2007.
Cassini, Jacques: dates as given on a
page of the Paris Observatory. Because generations of the Cassini family
were astronomers there, those dates have been taken to be definitive. However,
Britannica gives 8 Feb 1677 - 18 April 1756, and the
of Scientific Biography gives 18 Feb 1677 - 15 Apr 1756. The Paris
Observatory history states that Jacques Cassini was injured when his carriage
overturned on 15 Apr 1756, and that he died the next day, on the 16th.
Cavendish Laboratory: date of opening from
History of the Cavendish Laboratory 1871-1910, Longmans, Green &
Co. (1910), page 13.
CERN: date of adoption of de Broglie recommendation
on 12 Dec 1949 from The New York Times, 13 Dec 1949, page 13, article
states action took place on closing day of conference; contents
page of book History
of CERN, vol I, by A. Hermann, et al. gives Conference dates 8-12 Dec
Chancourtois' Helix: picture from The
Discovery of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 204
Chicora Meteorite: ref. Rain
of Iron and Ice, John S. Lewis, Helix Books (Addison-Wesley), 1997
Child, Charles Manning: quote cited
Ecology: Issues and Perspectives, edited by William J Resetarits,
Joseph Bernardo, Oxford University Press (2005) p.173.
Colburn, Irving: picture from Toledo:
The 20th Century, by Barbara L. Floyd, publ Arcadia Publishing
(2005) p. 14.
Comet West: false colour image from Comet
Science: The Study of Remnants from the Birth of the Solar System,
by Jacques Crovisier, Thérèse Encrenaz, publ. Cambridge University
Press (2000) p.41.
Cooper, Irving: Christmas gift reference
- The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives, Volume 1: 1981-1985.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1998.
Cormack, George: month of death provided
by email communication with General Mills.
Cronstedt, Axel: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 147
Crop-dusting: first time event date from
"Fighting Insects with Airplanes" by C.R. Nelly and J.S. Houser, National
Geographic Magazine, Vol. 41, pages 333-8 (Mar 1922). [Notes:
The article is subtitled An Account of the Successful Use of the Flying
Machine in Dusting Tall Trees Infested With Leaf-Eating Caterpillars. C.R.
Nelly is the entomologist that suggested the idea, so when he wrote the
article, he was probably well aware of the correct date for the event.
The date, and a mention of that article, is given in Seeds
of Change: A History of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development
Center, by Christopher M. Cumo, Wooster Book Co.(1999). However,
in the book John
Macready - Aviation Pioneer: At the Earth's Ceiling, by Sally Macready
Wallace, Sunflower University Press (Sep 1998), the date is given as 31
Aug 1921. The author is the daughter of the pilot, and wrote the book from
interviews with her father. All the preceeding sources state lead arsenate
as the chemical used. A New York Times article on 8 Jan 1922, p.85,
states the use of calcium arsenate as the chemical, which was mentioned
earlier in the article as proposed for use on cotton boll weevils.]
Day, Harry: Image courtesy of the Photograph
Curator, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, Ind.
Del Rio, Andrés Manuel. Birth year
given by Asimov and Larousse as 1764; given by Weeks as 1765.
Dental drill: patent drawing from On This
Day In America, John Wagman.
Rice, Lee R: photo from obituary, Journal
of Mammology, Vol 59, No. 3, p.636.
Dines, William: photo courtesy of
Michael Poole, great-grandson of William Dines.
Diving Suit: information from The Inventive
Yankee, Andrea Chesman, editor. Dublin, N.H.: Yankee Publishing Inc.,
Donald, Ian: Birthdate, 27 Dec 1910,
according to an article
in the European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive
Biology, found courtesy of an email enquiry to Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
Donati's Comet. Reference for further reading:
Jay M. Pasachoff, Roberta J.M. Olson & Martha L. Hazen, "The Earliest
Comet Photographs: Usherwood, Bond, and Donati 1858," Journal for the History
of Astronomy, vol. 27, no. 87 (May 1996): 129-145.
Date of limelight use for surveying fromMemoir
of Thomas Drummond, by John Ferguson M'Lennan (1867), p.77.
Duddell, William: photo from Obituary
Notices of Fellows Deceased, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,
A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, Vol. 94,
No. 664. (Aug. 1, 1918), page U40.
Earth's curvature: from article by William
L. Laurence in the New York Times, 31 Dec 1930, p. 1.
Earthquake, Charleston: illustration
from "The Stabililty of the Earth," Scribner's Magazine, vol 1,
no. 3 (Mar 1887), p. 272.
Elmen, Gustav: photo courtesy of his grand-daughter
Envelope Folding Machine patent for
Dr Hawes. Primary source for the 21 Jun date is the original patent image
at the U.S.P.T.O. which is taken to be authoritative. It is attributed
(by an apparent typo) to a "21 Jan" date in Kane's Famous First Facts,
which error has been propagated in many other on-line lists and print media.
Ekeberg, Anders: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 82
Fajans, Kasimir: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 299
Frasch, Herman: picture from Brimstone
The Stone That Burns, Williams Haynes, frontispiece.
Fitch, John: picture from American Inventions,
Barnes and Noble, p. 11.
Fluorine isolation dates ref. The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 272
Franklin Stove quote: from Benjamin
Franklin: A Biography, Ronald W. Clark. Random House, 1983. p.
French Academy of Sciences: date ref. Pendulum:
Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science, by Amir D. Aczel, publ. Simon
and Schuster (2003), page 95.
Fulton, Robert: date of steam paddle-boat
test on the Seine from Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History
from 458 A. D. to 1909, by Benson John Lossing and Woodrow Wilson,
publ. Harper (1910) p.393.
Gadolin, Johann: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 230.
Galaxy 8C 1435+635 red shift ref: S.
Rawlings et al, 1995, "A radio galaxy at redshift 4.41," Nature,
502; quoted in Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Annual Report 1995, page
Gas lighting in New York: date from Cradle
Days of New York (1609-1825), by Hugh Macatamney, publ. Drew and Lewis
(1909), p. 116.
Grubbe, Emile. References for further reading:
Grubbe EH. The origin and birth of x-ray therapy.
Cutaneous Rev 1947 May;51(5):375-9.
Grubbe EH. X-ray treatment; its introduction to
medicine. J Am Inst Homeopath 1946 Dec;39(12):419-22.
Haddon, Alfred: reference "Obituary:
Doctor Alfred Cort Haddon, F. R. S.," by C. S. Myers, The Geographical
Journal, Vol. 96, No. 3. (Sep., 1940), pp. 230-231.
Hamilton, Joseph: reference for date of
his first use of an intravenous radioisotope injection given in his obituary
in the New York Times, 20 Feb 1957, p.33. Whereas the newspaper
obituary gives date of death as 19 Feb 1957, a University of California
Memoriam (1959) states 18 Feb 1957. Since this was where he was Director
of the Crocker Laboratory, part of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
of the Univ. of California, the latter date has been used on this site
as probably more correct.
Hargrave, Lawrence: reference for date
of flight Omni Magazine, issue dated (?) 1/1/95.
Hatchett, Charles: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 77
Helmholtz, Hermann: date of invention provided
by Dr J.E.E. Keunen (pers. com. 6/1/04)
Helvetius, Jean-Adrien: dates of death and
honours from Helvetius: His Life and Place in the History of Educational
Thought, by Ian Cumming, Routledge (UK, 2003).
Herschel, John: description of crysotype
from The Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailed Catalogue of
Its Contents, John Sproule, publ. J. McGlashan (1854), page 231.
Highway, Lincoln: facts from The New
York Times, 31 Dec 1913, page 12; 26 Jan 1914, page 8; and 5 Apr 1914,
Hoagland, Dennis: picture courtesy of
the American Society of Plant Biologists.
Hrozny, Bedrich: some information from
in Man, Vol. 53. (Jun 1953), page 89.
Hussy, Obed: reaper description
from The Marvels of Modern Mechanism and Their Relation to Social Betterment,
by Jerome Bruce Crabtree, 1901.
Ice, India: information from The
Mechanics' Magazine, Museum, Register, Journal, and Gazette; Publ.
J. Cunningham, London (9 Apr 1836) Vol XXV, No. 661, pages 10-12
Johns Hopkins University, picture and information
courtesy of JHU Office of Communications and Public Affairs.
Johnson, Edward H: ref. for dates of birth
and death Thomas
A. Edison, Benefactor of Mankind; The Romantic Life Story of the World's
Greatest Inventor, by Francis Trevelyan Miller, publ. John C. Winston
Co. (1931), reprint publ. Kessinger Publishing (2005)
Jones, Sir Robert: dates from The
Life of Sir Robert Jones, by Frederick Watson, Ayer Publishing (1980),
pages 16 and 300. (According to this book, his father married in 1856,
suggesting that his son Robert is more likely to have been born in 1857
than the 1855 date seen various places on the web.) (source)
Keely, John: picture from Library of Curious
and Unususal Facts - Hoaxes and Deceptions, Time-Life Books, 1991,
Klaus, Karl: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 110.
Knight, Margaret E.: from Library
of Curious and Unusual Facts: Inventive Genius, Time-Life Books
Kornberg DNA synthesis references: "Closer
to Synthetic Life," Time, 90 (22 Dec 1967): p.66; "Viable Synthetic
DNA," Science News, 92 (30 Dec 1967): pp.629-630.
Kuenen, Phillip H.: picture from Milestones
in Geosciences, Wolf-Christian Dullo, Springer (2003), p.2 .
L-dopa test: reported in the New York Times,
15 Jan 1970.
Leakey, L.S.B., ref. for announcement of the
discovery of Australopithecus boisei skull: A new fossil skull
from Olduvai, Nature 184:491-493, 1959.
Legionnaire's Disease: dates confirmed by Internet
Response Team, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, CDC.
Lapworth, Charles: picture courtesy of
Lapworth Museum of Geology, University of Birmingham, England.
Leeuwenhoek, Antoine: picture from Scientists
& Inventors, Feltman and Ford, Facts On File, 1986, p. 44.
Lloyd, Seton: picture from 'In Honor of Professor Emeritus Seton Howard Frederick Lloyd', Anatolian Studies (1972),. 22, p.8.
Locke, John: electro-chronograph
picture and date of $10,000 award from Sky
and Ocean Joined: The U. S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000, Steven
J. Dick, Cambridge Univ. Press (2002), p. 91.
Lovelace, W Randolph II: test date from
Goes First? by Lawrence K. Altman, Random House (1987) p.28.
Lukin, Lionel: information from History
of the Life-boat, and Its Work, by Richard Lewis, Publi.
Macmillan and Co. (1874), patent date: page 4; illustration:
opposite page 6. See also patent date and number from A
Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Steam Navigation from Authentic Documents,
by Woodcroft Bennet, publ Taylor, Walton, and Maberly (1848) page 123.
Lyle, Eldon: picture from obituary in New
York Times, 12 Jan 1998, page B7, photo credit Tyler Morning
Telegraph. Birth date from Social
Security Death Index.
Marbut, Curtis: picture from C.F. Marbut
Collection, Archive of Soil Science, Western Historical Manuscripts Collection,
Columbia, Missouri; found by John Tandarich.
Marconi, Guglielmo: patent image from
and Improved, R. Baker, British Museum Publications, Ltd., p.142.
Marignac, Jean: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 237.
Mastodon and Man coexistence confirmed in
Kimmswick Bone Bed: date furnished by Interpretive Resource Technician
at the Mastodon State Historic Site.
Maytag wringer-washer: last date
of manufacture 22 Nov 1983 confirmed by an officer of the Maytag Collectors
Club who provided an image of an article describing the company's ceremony
on the last day of production (apparently from a Maytag company magazine).
Magazine of 3 Oct 1983 refers to the end of production "by the end
of the year." These show that references elsewhere on the internet to a
date of 12 Oct 1983 are incorrect.
MegeMouries, Hippolyte: ref. for margerine
patent date: Production de certains corps gras d'origine animale, Bulletin
des lois 1875, page 210.
Meteorite, Oklahoma: reported in New
York Times, 15 Jan 1970.
Meyer, Viktor: picture from A History
of Chemistry, F.J. Moore rev. by William T. Hall, 3rd Ed, 1939, p.
Microwave, Tappan: image from cover of
replacement parts catalog (ER 63-2, 15 May 1964) for "Tappan Commerical
Electronic" oven, the Tappan Company, Mansfield, Ohio.
Mill, Henry: patent description from Reference
Index of Patents of Invention, from 1617 to 1852, by B. Woodcroft,
publ. Patent Office, London, 1862, p.49. Date from Historical First Patents,
Travis Brown, Scarecrow Press, 1994, p.189.
Mill, Hugh: picture from Weather, June
1994, magazine of the Royal Meteorological Society.
Mower: Peter Gaillard's machine described
as "not successful, however, and it is remarkable only as being the first,"
The Making of America by Robert M La Follette, et al., 1906,
Müller, Sophus Otto: picture: publ.
in EB courtesy of Royal Danish Embassy, London.
New York diagnostic public health lab:
date from The
Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health, by John Duffy.
Nilson, Lars: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 219.
Nutation; ref: A Letter to the Right Honourable
George Earl of Macclesfield concerning an Apparent Motion Observed in Some
of the Fixed Stars; By James Bradley D. D. Astronomer Royal, and F. R.
S. (in Number 485) by James Bradley, Philosophical
Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 45. (1748), pp. 1-43.
Mustard bottle illustration from Benjamin Jackson's
10 Aug 1758 advertisement, as reproduced in American
Bottles and Flasks and their Ancestry, by McKearin and Wilson,
Oakley, Kenneth: Picture in Piltdown
- A Scientific Forgery, by Frank Spencer, p.154, originally from
an article in Picture Post, 28 Feb 1953.
Orthopaedic associations: Ref: Transactions,
Vol I, Sessions 1894-95, The British Orthopaedic Society (1896), pages
viii and 1. Also dates of other associations from
Evolution of Orthopaedic Surgery by Leslie Klenerman, RSM Press
(2000), page 6.
Patent, Antifouling Paint: ref
for Patent No. 32 issued on 31 Aug 1625 from Die Technik der Vorzeit, der
geschichtlichen Zeit und der Naturvölker, by Franz Maria Feldhaus
publ. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann (1914) p.931. (source)
Patent, Starting Block: Patent
No. 1,701,026 is the earliest patent in the 482/19 classification (exercise
devices, track, starting block) found in a USPTO online *database search
Patents: date from A History of American Manufactures
from 1608 to 1860..., by J. Leander Bishop, et al., pub. E. Young (1866).
Pelletron: maximum voltage of 32.0 MV verified
by National Electrostatics Corporation (email, 8 May 2006). A previously
stated value of 321.5 MV is a typographical error which should instead
read 32 MV (+/- 1.5 MV) where +/-1.5 MV represents a 5% uncertainty in
the measurement. Also, the date was previously listed as 17 May 1979, and
has been corrected to Thursday, 10 May 1979. The terminal potential of
32.0 MV has been accepted as the world's highest by the Guinness Book of
World Records. The Pelletron accelerator model 25 URC remains the only
electrostatic accelerator capable of running above 20 MV routinely. In
the late 1970's an attempt was made by the UK government to build
a 30 MV tandem. That tandem suffered structural damage when attempting
to run above 20 MV, was shut down and removed. Another attempte was made
by the French government in the mid 1980's to build a 35 MV tandem accelerator.
Those attempts failed with structural damage occurring in the region of
18 to 22 MV. That system has also recently been shut down.
Pepys, Samuel: Diary entry for November 16, 1666.
"This noon I met with Mr. [Robert] Hooke, and he tells me the dog which
was filled with another dog's blood at the [Gresham] College the
other day, is very well, and like to be so as ever. And doubts not its
[i.e,. blood transfusion] found being of great use to men." In Latham
R, Matthews W. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, vol. VII. Berkeley: University
of California Press; 1974, p. 373.
Pianotyp: image from The
British Library Guide to Printing: History and Techniques by Michael
Twyman, University of Toronto Press (1999), page 73.
Pitot, Henri: date of paper reading (p.52)
and picture (p.54) from A
History of Aerodynamics by John D. Anderson, Jr., Cambridge Univ.
Pitot Tube: diagram from Henry
P.G. Darcy and Other Pioneers in Hydraulics ASCE Publications
Poore, Charles: photo from New York Times,
27 Jul 1971, p.36.
Priestley, Joseph: description of
India Rubber quoted in Notes and Queries, Second Series, Vol. 12
(Jul-Dec 1861), publ. Bell & Daldy, London (1861), p.339. (source)
Pupin, Michael: picture from The Literary
1 Oct 1927, p.33.
Qurra, Thabit Ibn: date of death from
Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, by Thomas F.
Glick et al., Routledge (2005), p. 472.
Railway, Cheshunt. Ref: 3/4-mile length
in Stone Blocks and Iron Rails, by Bertram Baxter, publ. David & Charles
PLC (1966) page 37. Ref. (not consulted): The Times, 27 Jun 1825,
p.3 which has a full description and its method of operation.
Richmann, Georg. Ref: Benjamin
Franklin, A Biography by Ronald W. Clark p.87.
Richter, Hieronymus Theodor: picture from The
Discovery of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 198.
Say, Thomas. His birth date on 27 June 1787
is as given by Encyclopædia Britannica and Dictionary of
American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies,
1928-1936. Other sources give 27 July 1787, including at his burial
site in New Harmony, Indiana (according to a feedback e-mail).
Salamander safe: photo courtesy of Gordon
Sauveur, Albert: photo courtesy of his
Savery Thomas: Date and number of ship propulsion
patent: Patents for Inventions; Abridgements of Specifications Relating
to Gas, and Other Motive Power Engines, A.D. 1635-1866, published by
The Commissioners of Patents for Inventions (1873).
Wolfgang Schuler: Ref. Burnham's
Celestial Handbook: An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the
Solar System, Robert Burnham Jr., Dover Publications (1978)
Sefström, Nils: picture from The
Discovery of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 6th rev Ed, p. 354.
Shapley-Curtis debate: Natural
History v. 104 (May 1995) p. 66+
Smoking and heart disease report
information in New York Times, 8 Sep 1962, p.3.
Steel rails: date of first rolled in U.S.
from Manufacturer and Builder, Dec 1884, Vol 16, No.12, pages 287-8.
In J. G. O'Hara, 'George Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S., and the Concept of the Electron', Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London , Vol. 29, No. 2 (Mar., 1975), opp. p.266.
Telegraph used for steamship Cambria's
news: ref. The
Nation's Newsbrokers, by Richard Allen Schwarzlose, Northwestern
University Press (1989), page 88.
Telescope (name). Ref. The
Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin, Random House (1983).
Telpher opening date and description from Electric
Railways and the Electric Transmission of Power Described in Plain Terms,
by Robert Luce, W.I.Harris & Co, 1886, p. 99.
Theatre, Chestnut Street: date of gaslight
A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860
by John Leander Bishop (1866) p.231 (source)
Thomson, Elihu: picture from Great Inventions,
Charles Greeley, Smithsonian Scientific Series, Vol 12, Plate 9,
opp. p. 28
Thurber, Charles: date of death from Famous
and Interesting Thurbers, http://www.gargaro.com/thurber/fi.html.
Toothbrush, Tek: date for advertising campaign
from New York Times, 28 Mar 1939, page 30.
Travers, Morris: picture from The Discovery
of the Elements, Mary Elvira Weeks, 2nd rev Ed, p. 288
Trotter, Wilfred: picture from Operations
That Made History, Harold Ellis, Greenwich Medical Media (1996).
Tunnel, Mont Cenis. Reference for further
reading: Opening the Mont Cenis Tunnel, Harper's Weekly, Oct. 21,
1871. Date of parliament authorization ref: Engineering
in History, by Richard Shelton Kirby, publ.Dover (1990) p.484.
Vaccinations required for Boston schoolchildren:
Chronological History of the Boston Watch and Police, from 1631 to 1865,
by Edward Hartwell Savage (publ. by the author, 1865), p.67.
Wallace, Wilson D. Photo in obituary by Robert F. Spencer and Elizabeth Colson in American Anthropologist (Feb 1971). 73, No. 1, p. 257. In the Wiley Online Library.
Wanamaker, John: Famous
First Facts, 6th edition, states 28 arc lights and eight dynamos
were installed. Lamp patent information from the Smithsonian
website, which refers to 20 arc lamps being installed. The
Gilded Age: Perspectives on the Origins of Modern America, by Charles
William Calhoun, publ. Rowman & Littlefield (2007) pages 36-37 gives
that "Initially the store had four dynamos installed and sixty-four lamps.
Two years later, Wanamaker added 125 lamps, but he bought this electricity
from the Brush Electric Company's plant several blocks from the store....
Wanamaker visited Edison at Menlo Park in northern New Jersey in 1883 to
organize the lighting for his expansion of the store into the basement.
By 1888, Wanamaker had 355 arc lamps and 80 incandescent lamps." But Calhoun
(? mis-)quotes the installation date as Jan 1880. Ref. for year of radio
Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications,
by Robert Britt Horowitz, publ. Oxford (1989) p. 112.
Wankel, Felix: picture from cover of Wankel
Rotary Engine: A History, by John B. Hege, McFarland & Company
Wilkinson, David: picture from Slater
Mill, Rhode Island, Sarah Levitt, Arcadia Publishing (1997) p.20.
Williamson, AB: picture provided by DEB
Wilson, John: ref: see Biography
(1832) and Biography
(1891) transcribed on this site.
Winthrop, John (1605-76): ref.
for Royal Society membership in Dictionary of American Biography Base
Set, American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936. "Leaping Hill"
ref: "A Matter Too Hard for Man to Comprehend": John Winthrop Jr. and
the "Leaping" Hill of Southern Maine, edited by Lauric Henneton, The
New England Quarterly, vol 79, no. 3 (Sep 2006) p.461-72.]
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