Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index C > Category: Clarity

Clarity Quotes (24 quotes)

... in going over the history of all the inventions for which history could be obtained it became more and more clear that in addition to training and in addition to extensive knowledge, a natural quality of mind was also necessary.
Aphorism listed Frederick Seitz, The Cosmic Inventor: Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (1866-1932) (1999), 54, being Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Held at Philadelphia For Promoting Useful Knowledge, Vol. 86, Pt. 6.
Science quotes on:  |  Addition (12)  |  Extensive (6)  |  History (156)  |  Invention (174)  |  Knowledge (679)  |  Mind (272)  |  Natural (48)  |  Necessity (78)  |  Obtain (14)  |  Quality (29)  |  Training (21)

All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee;
All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see;
All Discord, Harmony, not understood;
All partial Evil, universal Good:
And, spite of Pride, in erring Reason's spite,
One truth is clear, 'Whatever IS, is RIGHT.'
'An Essay on Man' (1733-4), Epistle I. In John Butt (ed.), The Poems of Alexander Pope (1965), 515.
Science quotes on:  |  Art (80)  |  Chance (77)  |  Direction (27)  |  Discord (3)  |  Evil (31)  |  Existence (150)  |  Good (81)  |  Harmony (27)  |  Nature (534)  |  Pride (21)  |  Reason (173)  |  Right (49)  |  Seeing (29)  |  Spite (2)  |  Truth (450)  |  Understanding (231)  |  Universal (26)  |  Unknown (40)  |  Whatever (4)

Among the older records, we find chapter after chapter of which we can read the characters, and make out their meaning: and as we approach the period of man’s creation, our book becomes more clear, and nature seems to speak to us in language so like our own, that we easily comprehend it. But just as we begin to enter on the history of physical changes going on before our eyes, and in which we ourselves bear a part, our chronicle seems to fail us—a leaf has been torn out from nature's record, and the succession of events is almost hidden from our eyes.
Letter 1 to William Wordsworth. Quoted in the appendix to W. Wordsworth, A Complete Guide to the Lakes, Comprising Minute Direction for the Tourist, with Mr Wordsworth's Description of the Scenery of the County and Three Letters upon the Geology of the Lake District (1842), 14.
Science quotes on:  |  Approach (16)  |  Book (100)  |  Chapter (2)  |  Character (39)  |  Chronicle (5)  |  Comprehension (30)  |  Creation (129)  |  Enter (7)  |  Event (49)  |  Failure (58)  |  Hidden (15)  |  History (156)  |  Language (71)  |  Leaf (22)  |  Mankind (111)  |  Meaning (52)  |  Nature (534)  |  Old (23)  |  Period (24)  |  Physical Change (4)  |  Record (22)  |  Speaking (30)  |  Succession (30)  |  Tear (11)

First get a clear notion of what you desire to accomplish and then in all probability you will succeed in doing it.
As quoted in Joseph Wickham Roe, English and American Tool Builders (1916), 48-49.
Science quotes on:  |  Accomplishment (25)  |  Desire (46)  |  Notion (15)  |  Success (114)

If you have to prove a theorem, do not rush. First of all, understand fully what the theorem says, try to see clearly what it means. Then check the theorem; it could be false. Examine the consequences, verify as many particular instances as are needed to convince yourself of the truth. When you have satisfied yourself that the theorem is true, you can start proving it.
In How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (2004), 15.
Science quotes on:  |  Check (7)  |  Consequence (44)  |  Convince (7)  |  Examination (47)  |  False (29)  |  Instance (7)  |  Meaning (52)  |  Need (57)  |  Particular (24)  |  Proof (136)  |  Rush (5)  |  Satisfaction (31)  |  Start (25)  |  Theorem (34)  |  Truth (450)  |  Understanding (231)  |  Verification (16)

In my view, aiming at simplicity and lucidity is a moral duty of all intellectuals: lack of clarity is a sin, and pretentiousness is a crime.
Objective Knowledge: an Evolutionary Approach (1972), 44
Science quotes on:  |  Crime (11)  |  Duty (26)  |  Intellectual (13)  |  Lack (14)  |  Lucidity (2)  |  Moral (38)  |  Simplicity (92)  |  Sin (13)

In the modern world, science and society often interact in a perverse way. We live in a technological society, and technology causes political problems. The politicians and the public expect science to provide answers to the problems. Scientific experts are paid and encouraged to provide answers. The public does not have much use for a scientist who says, “Sorry, but we don’t know.” The public prefers to listen to scientists who give confident answers to questions and make confident predictions of what will happen as a result of human activities. So it happens that the experts who talk publicly about politically contentious questions tend to speak more clearly than they think. They make confident predictions about the future, and end up believing their own predictions. Their predictions become dogmas which they do not question. The public is led to believe that the fashionable scientific dogmas are true, and it may sometimes happen that they are wrong. That is why heretics who question the dogmas are needed.
Frederick S. Pardee Distinguished Lecture (Oct 2005), Boston University. Collected in 'Heretical Thoughts About Science and Society', A Many-Colored Glass: Reflections on the Place of Life in the Universe (2007), 43-44.
Science quotes on:  |  Answer (96)  |  Belief (139)  |  Cause (122)  |  Confidence (16)  |  Dogma (13)  |  Expert (17)  |  Fashion (9)  |  Heretic (2)  |  Interaction (11)  |  Need (57)  |  Perversity (2)  |  Politics (52)  |  Prediction (48)  |  Problem (180)  |  Public (35)  |  Question (159)  |  Science And Society (12)  |  Speaking (30)  |  Technology (98)  |  Tend (2)  |  Thinking (166)  |  Truth (450)  |  Wrong (50)

In vertebrate paleontology, increasing knowledge leads to triumphant loss of clarity.
Synapsid Evolution and Dentition, International Colloquium on the Evolution of Mammals, Brussels (1962.)
Science quotes on:  |  Increase (36)  |  Knowledge (679)  |  Loss (44)  |  Paleontology (16)  |  Triumph (21)  |  Vertebrate (11)

It is impossible to devise an experiment without a preconceived idea; devising an experiment, we said, is putting a question; we never conceive a question without an idea which invites an answer. I consider it, therefore, an absolute principle that experiments must always be devised in view of a preconceived idea, no matter if the idea be not very clear nor very well defined.
An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865, translation 1927, 1957), 23.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (32)  |  Answer (96)  |  Conceiving (2)  |  Consideration (38)  |  Definition (86)  |  Devise (4)  |  Experiment (369)  |  Idea (226)  |  Impossibility (32)  |  Invitation (4)  |  Preconceive (2)  |  Principle (97)  |  Putting (2)  |  Question (159)  |  View (48)

Owing to his lack of knowledge, the ordinary man cannot attempt to resolve conflicting theories of conflicting advice into a single organized structure. He is likely to assume the information available to him is on the order of what we might think of as a few pieces of an enormous jigsaw puzzle. If a given piece fails to fit, it is not because it is fraudulent; more likely the contradictions and inconsistencies within his information are due to his lack of understanding and to the fact that he possesses only a few pieces of the puzzle. Differing statements about the nature of things, differing medical philosophies, different diagnoses and treatments—all of these are to be collected eagerly and be made a part of the individual's collection of puzzle pieces. Ultimately, after many lifetimes, the pieces will fit together and the individual will attain clear and certain knowledge.
'Strategies of Resort to Curers in South India', contributed in Charles M. Leslie (ed.), Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study (1976), 185.
Science quotes on:  |  Advice (22)  |  Assumption (27)  |  Attempt (41)  |  Availability (9)  |  Certainty (59)  |  Collection (26)  |  Conflict (27)  |  Contradiction (22)  |  Difference (135)  |  Eagerness (3)  |  Fact (325)  |  Failure (58)  |  Few (7)  |  Fit (12)  |  Inconsistency (3)  |  Individual (59)  |  Information (56)  |  Jigsaw (2)  |  Knowledge (679)  |  Lack (14)  |  Lifetime (10)  |  Man (258)  |  Medicine (185)  |  Nature Of Things (4)  |  Ordinary (19)  |  Organization (51)  |  Philosophy (132)  |  Piece (13)  |  Possession (24)  |  Puzzle (16)  |  Resolution (10)  |  Single (26)  |  Statement (28)  |  Structure (104)  |  Theory (353)  |  Thinking (166)  |  Treatment (61)  |  Ultimate (27)

Perhaps the problem is the seeming need that people have of making black-and-white cutoffs when it comes to certain mysterious phenomena, such as life and consciousness. People seem to want there to be an absolute threshold between the living and the nonliving, and between the thinking and the “merely mechanical,” ... But the onward march of science seems to force us ever more clearly into accepting intermediate levels of such properties.
‘Shades of Gray Along the Consciousness Continuum’, Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought (1995), 310.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (32)  |  Acceptance (31)  |  Certain (14)  |  Consciousness (36)  |  Force (75)  |  Intermediate (10)  |  Level (16)  |  Life (460)  |  Make (10)  |  March (4)  |  Mechanical (11)  |  Mystery (74)  |  Need (57)  |  Nonliving (2)  |  People (72)  |  Phenomenon (114)  |  Problem (180)  |  Property (46)  |  Science (875)  |  Seem (12)  |  Thinking (166)  |  Threshold (3)

Profundity of thought belongs to youth, clarity of thought to old age.
Human, All-To-Human, Vol. 2, Miscellaneous Maxims and Opinions (1879), 140. In Willard Huntington Wright, What Nietzsche Taught? (1917), 78.
Science quotes on:  |  Age (60)  |  Old (23)  |  Old Age (17)  |  Profundity (2)  |  Thought (170)  |  Youth (32)

That small word “Force,” they make a barber's block,
Ready to put on
Meanings most strange and various, fit to shock
Pupils of Newton....
The phrases of last century in this
Linger to play tricks—
Vis viva and Vis Mortua and Vis Acceleratrix:
Those long-nebbed words that to our text books still
Cling by their titles,
And from them creep, as entozoa will,
Into our vitals.
But see! Tait writes in lucid symbols clear
One small equation;
And Force becomes of Energy a mere
Space-variation.
'Report on Tait's Lecture on Force:— B.A., 1876', reproduced in Bruce Clarke, Energy Forms: Allegory and Science in the Era of Classical Thermodynamics (2001), 19. Maxwell's verse was inspired by a paper delivered at the British Association (B.A.. He was satirizing a “considerable cofusion of nomenclature” at the time, and supported his friend Tait's desire to establish a redefinition of energy on a thermnodynamic basis.
Science quotes on:  |  Barber (3)  |  Block (5)  |  Clinging (3)  |  Creeping (2)  |  Energy (103)  |  Equation (46)  |  Force (75)  |  Lucidity (2)  |  Meaning (52)  |  Sir Isaac Newton (176)  |  Nomenclature (102)  |  Phrase (7)  |  Play (22)  |  Poem (76)  |  Pupil (10)  |  Shock (7)  |  Space (68)  |  Strange (17)  |  Symbol (23)  |  Peter Guthrie Tait (6)  |  Textbook (11)  |  Title (4)  |  Trick (11)  |  Variation (34)  |  Various (8)  |  Vital (10)  |  Word (97)

The conception of objective reality ... has thus evaporated ... into the transparent clarity of mathematics that represents no longer the behavior of particles but rather our knowledge of this behavior.
In 'The Representation of Nature in Contemporary Physics', Daedalus (1958), 87, 95-108. As cited in Karl Popper, Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics (1992), 85.
Science quotes on:  |  Behavior (13)  |  Conception (29)  |  Evaporation (3)  |  Knowledge (679)  |  Mathematics (367)  |  Objective (18)  |  Particle (45)  |  Reality (67)  |  Representation (17)  |  Transparency (3)

The history of science, like the history of all human ideas, is a history of irresponsible dreams, of obstinacy, and of error. But science is one of the very few human activities—perhaps the only one—in which errors are systematically criticized and fairly often, in time, corrected. This is why we can say that, in science, we often learn from our mistakes, and why we can speak clearly and sensibly about making progress there. In most other fields of human endeavour there is change, but rarely progress ... And in most fields we do not even know how to evaluate change.
From Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (1963), 216. Reproduced in Karl Popper, Truth, Rationality and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge (1979), 9.
Science quotes on:  |  Activity (48)  |  Correction (20)  |  Criticism (34)  |  Dream (39)  |  Error (152)  |  History (156)  |  History Of Science (34)  |  Human (168)  |  Idea (226)  |  Irresponsibility (3)  |  Learning (130)  |  Mistake (40)  |  Progress (200)  |  Sense (104)  |  Speaking (30)  |  Systematically (3)

The inherent unpredictability of future scientific developments—the fact that no secure inference can be drawn from one state of science to another—has important implications for the issue of the limits of science. It means that present-day science cannot speak for future science: it is in principle impossible to make any secure inferences from the substance of science at one time about its substance at a significantly different time. The prospect of future scientific revolutions can never be precluded. We cannot say with unblinking confidence what sorts of resources and conceptions the science of the future will or will not use. Given that it is effectively impossible to predict the details of what future science will accomplish, it is no less impossible to predict in detail what future science will not accomplish. We can never confidently put this or that range of issues outside 'the limits of science', because we cannot discern the shape and substance of future science with sufficient clarity to be able to say with any assurance what it can and cannot do. Any attempt to set 'limits' to science—any advance specification of what science can and cannot do by way of handling problems and solving questions—is destined to come to grief.
The Limits of Science (1984), 102-3.
Science quotes on:  |  Accomplishment (25)  |  Advance (52)  |  Assurance (5)  |  Confidence (16)  |  Detail (33)  |  Discerning (3)  |  Effectiveness (9)  |  Future (110)  |  Handling (3)  |  Implication (9)  |  Importance (106)  |  Impossibility (32)  |  Inference (16)  |  Inherent (17)  |  Issue (14)  |  Limit (34)  |  Prediction (48)  |  Present (36)  |  Principle (97)  |  Problem (180)  |  Range (12)  |  Science (875)  |  Security (14)  |  Shape (20)  |  Speaking (30)  |  Specification (3)  |  State (43)  |  Substance (39)  |  Unpredictability (4)

There is in the chemist a form of thought by which all ideas become visible in the mind as strains of an imagined piece of music. This form of thought is developed in Faraday in the highest degree, whence it arises that to one who is not acquainted with this method of thinking, his scientific works seem barren and dry, and merely a series of researches strung together, while his oral discourse when he teaches or explains is intellectual, elegant, and of wonderful clearness.
Autobiography, 257-358. Quoted in William H. Brock, Justus Von Liebig (2002), 9.
Science quotes on:  |  Chemist (49)  |  Michael Faraday (58)  |  Idea (226)  |  Intellect (99)  |  Lecture (31)  |  Music (26)  |  Research (360)  |  Teaching (64)  |  Thought (170)

There is nothing which Nature so clearly reveals, and upon which science so strongly insists, as the universal reign of law, absolute, universal, invariable law... Not one jot or tittle of the laws of Nature are unfulfilled. I do not believe it is possible to state this fact too strongly... Everything happens according to law, and, since law is the expression of Divine will, everything happens according to Divine will, i.e. is in some sense ordained, decreed.
Lecture 18, 'Predestination and Free-Will', Religion and Science: A Series of Sunday Lectures (1874), 278.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (32)  |  Accordance (4)  |  Belief (139)  |  Decree (2)  |  Divine (17)  |  Everything (38)  |  Expression (44)  |  Fact (325)  |  Fulfillment (6)  |  Happening (23)  |  Insistence (5)  |  Invariability (3)  |  Law (273)  |  Law Of Nature (30)  |  Nature (534)  |  Nothing (89)  |  Reign (5)  |  Revelation (24)  |  Science (875)  |  Science And Religion (159)  |  Statement (28)  |  Universality (9)  |  Will (22)

We have not known a single great scientist who could not discourse freely and interestingly with a child. Can it be that haters of clarity have nothing to say, have observed nothing, have no clear picture of even their own fields?
In John Steinbeck and Edward Flanders Ricketts, Sea of Cortez: a Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research (1941), 73.
Science quotes on:  |  Child (90)  |  Discourse (7)  |  Field (69)  |  Great (62)  |  Interest (82)  |  Nothing (89)  |  Observation (264)  |  Picture (25)  |  Scientist (237)

We might expect that as we come close upon living nature the characters of our old records would grow legible and clear; but just when we begin to enter on the history of the physical changes going on before our eyes, and in which we ourselves bear a part, our chronicle seems to fail us: a leaf has been torn out from Nature’s book, and the succession of events is almost hidden from our eyes. [On gaps in the Pleistocene fossil record.]
As quoted by Hugh Miller in Lecture First, collected in Popular Geology: A Series of Lectures Read Before the Philosophical Institution of Edinburgh, with Descriptive Sketches from a Geologist's Portfolio (1859), 82-83.
Science quotes on:  |  Book (100)  |  Character (39)  |  Chronicle (5)  |  Event (49)  |  Expectation (26)  |  Fail (8)  |  Fossil (73)  |  Gap (9)  |  Hidden (15)  |  History (156)  |  Leaf (22)  |  Legibility (2)  |  Nature (534)  |  Ourself (8)  |  Physical Change (4)  |  Pleistocene (2)  |  Record (22)  |  Succession (30)  |  Torn (4)

What distinguishes the language of science from language as we ordinarily understand the word? … What science strives for is an utmost acuteness and clarity of concepts as regards their mutual relation and their correspondence to sensory data.
In Out of My Later Years (1950, 1956), 112. Footnoted on page 277 as from 'The Common Language of Science', a broadcast recording for the Science Conference, London (28 Sep 1941) and published in Advancement of Science, 2, No. 5, 16.
Science quotes on:  |  Acuteness (2)  |  Concept (38)  |  Correspondence (6)  |  Data (59)  |  Distinguish (11)  |  Language (71)  |  Mutual (12)  |  Ordinary (19)  |  Relation (35)  |  Science (875)  |  Sense (104)  |  Understanding (231)  |  Utmost (5)  |  Word (97)

You must learn to talk clearly. The jargon of scientific terminology which rolls off your tongues is mental garbage
Martin H. Fischer, Howard Fabing (ed.) and Ray Marr (ed.), Fischerisms (1944).
Science quotes on:  |  Garbage (3)  |  Jargon (2)  |  Nomenclature (102)  |  Talk (21)

[In the Royal Society, there] has been, a constant Resolution, to reject all the amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style: to return back to the primitive purity, and shortness, when men deliver'd so many things, almost in an equal number of words. They have exacted from all their members, a close, naked, natural way of speaking; positive expressions; clear senses; a native easiness: bringing all things as near the Mathematical plainness, as they can: and preferring the language of Artizans, Countrymen, and Merchants, before that, of Wits, or Scholars.
The History of the Royal Society (1667), 113.
Science quotes on:  |  Amplification (3)  |  Easiness (2)  |  Expression (44)  |  Language (71)  |  Mathematics (367)  |  Member (9)  |  Merchant (4)  |  Plainness (2)  |  Primitive (17)  |  Purity (8)  |  Rejection (16)  |  Resolution (10)  |  Return (13)  |  Royal Society (7)  |  Scholar (19)  |  Sense (104)  |  Speaking (30)  |  Style (5)  |  Wit (13)  |  Word (97)

[Presently, science undergraduates] do not learn to write clearly and briefly, marshalling their points in due and aesthetically satisfying order, and eliminating inessentials. They are inept at those turns of phrase or happy analogy which throw a flying bridge across a chasm of misunderstanding and make contact between mind and mind.
From essay in Thomas Rice Henn, The Apple and the Spectroscope: Being Lectures on Poetry Designed (in the Main) for Science Students (1951), 142.
Science quotes on:  |  Analogy (26)  |  Bridge (12)  |  Chasm (5)  |  Contact (12)  |  Elimination (14)  |  Flying (9)  |  Mind (272)  |  Misunderstanding (6)  |  Science (875)  |  Throw (11)  |  Undergraduate (4)  |  Write (21)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by: • Albert Einstein • Isaac Newton • Lord Kelvin • Charles Darwin • Srinivasa Ramanujan • Carl Sagan • Florence Nightingale • Thomas Edison • Aristotle • Marie Curie • Benjamin Franklin • Winston Churchill • Galileo Galilei • Sigmund Freud • Robert Bunsen • Louis Pasteur • Theodore Roosevelt • Abraham Lincoln • Ronald Reagan • Leonardo DaVinci • Michio Kaku • Karl Popper • Johann Goethe • Robert Oppenheimer • Charles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about: • Atomic  Bomb • Biology • Chemistry • Deforestation • Engineering • Anatomy • Astronomy • Bacteria • Biochemistry • Botany • Conservation • Dinosaur • Environment • Fractal • Genetics • Geology • History of Science • Invention • Jupiter • Knowledge • Love • Mathematics • Measurement • Medicine • Natural Resource • Organic Chemistry • Physics • Physician • Quantum Theory • Research • Science and Art • Teacher • Technology • Universe • Volcano • Virus • Wind Power • Women Scientists • X-Rays • Youth • Zoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Custom Quotations Search - custom search within only our quotations pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Author Icon
who invites your feedback

Today in Science History

Most Popular

Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.
- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton