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Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “A change in motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and takes place along the straight line in which that force is impressed.”
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NOVEMBER 13 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on November 13th
  Rear-Admiral Dennis Cambell
 Born 13 Nov 1907; died 6 Apr 2000 at age 92.
English naval aviator, test pilot and inventor of the angled flight deck which gives pilots a second chance when landing on an aircraft carrier. Like any great invention, this idea was outstandingly simple. Without it, pilots landing on a straight deck depended on his plane's tail-hook catching a steel arrester wire across the flight deck to stop before crashing into the barrier and aircraft parked at the far end. Cambell's idea meant that aircraft which failed to stop had a clear escape and could "bolt" under reapplied throttle over the port bow. The US Navy first adopted the idea and made such structural alterations to the carrier Antietam. The British Admiralty, impressed by that ship's field tests, then converted their new large carrier Ark Royal and appointed Cambell as Captain.
  Edward A. Doisy
 Born 13 Nov 1893; died 23 Oct 1986 at age 92.
Edward Adelbert Doisy was an American biochemist who shared (with Henrik Dam) the 1943 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his isolation and synthesis of vitamin K, a substance that encourages blood clotting (1939), used in medicine and surgery. With the embryologist Edgar Allen (1922-34), he developed assay techniques that facilitated research on sex hormones. Doisy and his associates isolated the sex hormones estrone (theelin, 1929; the first estrogen to be crystallized), estriol (theelol, 1930), and estradiol (dihydrotheelin, 1935). In 1936-39 he isolated two forms of the vitamin, (K1 from lucerne seed and K2 from fish meal, in a pure crystalline form), determined their chemical structures, and synthesized the vitamin.«
Booklist for Vitamin K.
  Abraham Flexner
 Born 13 Nov 1866; died 21 Sep 1959 at age 92.   quotes
American educator who played a major role in the introduction of modern medical and science education to American colleges and universities. Founder and director of a progressive college- preparatory school in Louisville (1890-1904), Flexner issued an appraisal of American educational institutions (The American College: A Criticism; 1908) that earned him a Carnegie Foundation commission to survey the quality of the 155 medical colleges in the U.S. and Canada. His report (1910) had an immediate and sensational impact on American medical education. Many of the colleges that were severely criticized by Flexner closed soon after publication of the report; others initiated extensive revisions of their policies and curricula.
Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning, by Thomas Neville Bonner. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Abraham Flexner.
  John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
 Born 13 Nov 1809; died 12 Jul 1870 at age 60.   quotes
American inventor of the smooth-bore cannon that was, from its shape, familiarly known as the “soda-water bottle.” The shape resulted from a design in which the thickness of metal was varied to match the differences in internal pressure occurring when the cannon was fired. The pressures were determined by boring holes in the walls of the gun and inserting as gauges such objects as pistons or musket balls. He developed the weapons primarily for use on small boats that patrolled the waterways. His iron smoothbores were adopted in 1850 (9-inch gun) and 1851 (11-inch gun). Although designed for use against wooden ships, the iron-clad Monitor class ships carried two of these guns in their turrets, which were replaced by the 15-inch Dahlgrens in 1862.
Booklist for John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren.

Nature bears long with those who wrong her. She is patient under abuse. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath. (1882) -- Nathaniel Egleston, who was writing then about deforestation, but speaks equally well about the danger of climate change today.
Carl Sagan Thumbnail Carl Sagan: In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) ...(more by Sagan)

Albert Einstein: I used to wonder how it comes about that the electron is negative. Negative-positive—these are perfectly symmetric in physics. There is no reason whatever to prefer one to the other. Then why is the electron negative? I thought about this for a long time and at last all I could think was “It won the fight!” ...(more by Einstein)

Richard Feynman: It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ...(more by Feynman)
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NOVEMBER 13 – DEATHS – Scientists died on November 13th
  Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs
 Died 13 Nov 1999 at age 91 (born 11 Feb 1908).
English geologist and explorer who initiated and led (with Sir Edmund Hillary) the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1957-58. In 1929 and 1930-31, Fuchs participated as a geologist on expeditions to East Greenland and the East African lakes. In 1958 Fuchs's 12-man party completed the first land journey across Antarctica in 99 days despite severe hardships, travelling 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometres) from the Filchner Ice Shelf to McMurdo Sound. Along the way a substantial scientific programme had been accomplished, including seismic soundings and a gravity traverse. The findings of the expedition confirmed earlier theories that a single continent exists beneath the Antarctic polar ice sheet.
  Helen Herrick Malsed
 Died 13 Nov 1998 (born 1910).
American toy inventor who created a number of games and toys, most notably toys based on the already popular Slinky, such as the Slinky Dog and the Slinky Train. [Birth year 1910? uncertain.]
  Herbert E. Ives
 Died 13 Nov 1953 at age 71 (born 31 Jul 1882).
Herbert Eugene Ives was an American physicist and inventor of transmission of mechanical video pictures. Research into a television process by the AT&T Co. at Bell Laboratories, New York was under the direction of Dr. Herbert E. Ives. On 7 Apr 1927, live images of Commerce Secretary Hoover were transmitted in the first successful long distance demonstration of television, sent from Washington D.C. to New York, over long distance wires. On 27 June 1929 the first public demonstration of color TV showed images are a bouquet of roses and an American flag using a mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. A two-way video telephone was first demonstrated in 1930 by Ives in New York City.
  Andrι Michaux
 Died 13 Nov 1802 at age 56 (born 7 Mar 1746).
French explorer, botanist and silviculturist who wrote the first book on the forest trees of America. After studying under Bernard de Jussieu, beginning in 1779, he began a series of explorations searching for and classifying new species of plants in England, France and the Pyrenees. Becoming French Consul in Persia led to full-time botanical explorations there (1782-85). Next, he travelled in North America for the French government to send back tree species suitable to transplant for naval shipbuilding. Jefferson provided him with letters of introduction as a scientist. In 1796, he lost notes and specimens in a shipwreck off Egmont, Holland. In 1801, while exploring Madagascar his health failed from the exertion and he died of a tropical fever.
Booklist for John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren.
  Prince Henry the Navigator
 Died 13 Nov 1460 at age 66 (born 4 Mar 1394).
Portuguese prince and navigator.

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NOVEMBER 13 – EVENTS – Science events on November 13th
  1,000th pulsar
  In 1998, the discovery of the 1,000th pulsar in our galaxy was announced in a press release by the Jodrell Bank Observatory, University of Manchester, using the 64-meter Parkes Radio Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. A “multibeam” receiver was installed on the telescope in early 1997. This allowed the astronomers from England, Australia, United States, and Italy to find pulsars much faster than before. On average, they found a new pulsar in every hour of observing. By this date, the researchers had found more than 200 pulsars and they expected to find another 600 more before the survey ended. The “multibeam” receiver used consists of 13 hexagonally arranged receivers that allow simultaneous observations.
Booklist for Jodrell Bank.
  Mars satellite
  In 1971, Mariner-9, the first man-made object to orbit another planet, entered Martian orbit. The mission of the unmanned craft was to return photographs mapping 70% of the surface, and to study the planet's thin atmosphere, clouds, and hazes, together with its surface chemistry and seasonal changes.
  Artificial snow
  In 1946, artificial snow from a natural cloud was produced over Mount Greylock, Mass., for the first time in the U.S. An airplane spread small pellets of dry-ice (frozen carbon dioxide) for three miles at a height of 14,000 ft. Although the snow fell an estimated 3,000 feet, it evaporated as it fell through dry air, and never reached the ground. The experiment was carried out by Vincent J. Schaefer of the General Electric Company. Earlier the same year, he had produced snow in a cold chamber, on 12 Jul 1946.
  In 1930, the Rotolactor, invented by Henry W. Jeffries, was housed in the lactorium of the Walker Gordon Laboratory Company, Inc., at Plainsboro, N.J. This was a 50-stall revolving platform that enabled the milking of 1,680 cows in seven hours by rotating them into position with the milking machines. A Rotolactor was displayed at the 1939 New York World's Fair as part of the "Dairy World of Tomorrow," exhibit in the Borden building. The glass-enclosed revolving Rotolactor platform carried 150 pedigreed cows were washed, dried, and mechanically milked twice daily. A favorite attraction of the Food Zone, the Rotolactor epitomized how technology advanced the production of such a widely-used product as milk.
Booklist for 1939 New York World's Fair.
  Holland Tunnel opened
Thumbnail - Holland Tunnel opened
Toll plaza
  In 1927, the Holland Tunnel opened for vehicular traffic as the first twin tube subaqueous vehicular tunnel in the U.S. It joined Jersey City, N.J. and New York City, N.Y. The day before, after an opening ceremony, in the next hour 20,000 people walked the 9,250 feet length of the tunnel from shore to shore, of which 5,480-ft runs under the river. Named after its engineer, Clifford Holland, the tunnel carries 1,900 vehicles per hour. The air in the tubes is changed 42 times an hour, at the rate of 3,761,000 cubic feet per minute. The first subaqueous highway single tube tunnel in the U.S. was the 1,520-ft long Washington Street Tunnel beneath the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois, which was first authorized 17 Jul 1866, though it did not carry automobile traffic until 1911.
Booklist for Holland Tunnel.
  Channel tunnel proposed
  In 1855, a proposal for a tunnel under the English Channel was reported in the New York Daily Times, which, according to French engineer M. Loèpold Favre, would in five years connect Boulogne to Dover. The 18½ mile (30-km) tunnel under the Channel would also need about 1½ mile (2-km) under the shores for each approach at the ends. Excavated at no less than 82-ft (25-m) below the sea bed, the tunnel would be lined with a double arch: one of granite and impermeable cement and an inner arch of thin, iron plates with perforations to reveal even slight leakage. Instead of smoke-producing locomotives, an atmospheric railway using a compressed air tube would carry passengers and freight such as coal. Ventilation shafts would rise above the highest water level in islands formed by excavated rock.«   more
Booklist for Channel Tunnel History.
  Channel telegraph
  In 1851, the first public message was sent on the submarine telegraph cable under the English Channel between Dover, England and Calais, France. It gave the price of the English funds. It was a project of The English Channel Submarine Telegraph Company formed in1849 by John Watkins Brett. The first cable the company laid to span the strait of Dover was not sufficiently strongly protected, and failed within a few days of its first use in Sep 1850. Brett's second attempt used an armoured cable insulated with gutta percha. On its public opening day, the Duke of Wellington attending in Dover was given a salute by a 32 pounder gun loaded with 10-lb of powder and fired by a transmission of current from Calais.« [Image left: Cableship HMS Blazer laying off cable over the stern from its hold; right: structure of the armoured cable]
Booklist for Submarine Telegraph Cable.

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Sophie Germain
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Ernest Rutherford
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Marcel Proust
William Harvey
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John Keynes
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- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
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Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
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- 60 -
Francis Galton
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Martin Fischer
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Karl Popper
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- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
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Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
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Alfred Wegener
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- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
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JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
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- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
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- 20 -
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Francis Bacon
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- 10 -
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Isaac Newton

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